Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”).
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include, in the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments and reclassifications) necessary to state fairly the Consolidated Balance Sheets, Statements of Operations, Statements of Comprehensive Loss, Statements of Stockholders' Equity, and Statements of Cash Flows for all periods presented.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current period presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations.
The Company determined its operating segments on the same basis that it assesses performance and makes operating decisions. The Company principally operates in two distinct business segments: the Content Production & Distribution Segment, which produces and distributes children’s content, and the Media Advisory & Advertising Services Segment, which provides media and advertising services. These segments are reflective of how the Company’s Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) reviews operating results for the purposes of allocating resources and assessing performance. The Company has identified its Chief Executive Officer as the CODM. The segments are organized around the products and services provided to customers and represent the Company’s reportable segments.
The accounting policies for each segment are the same as for the Company as a whole. Refer to Note 22 for additional information.
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Genius Brands International, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. The Company consolidates all majority-owned subsidiaries and variable interest entities where the Company has been determined to be the primary beneficiary. The interests in a variable interest entity which the Company does not control are recorded as non-controlling interests. Non-consolidated investments are accounted for using the equity method or the fair value option and recorded at fair value with changes recognized within Other Income (Expense), net on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Business Combinations
The Company accounts for transactions that are classified as business combinations in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Boards’ (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”). Once a business is acquired, the Company allocates the fair value of the purchase consideration to the tangible assets, liabilities, and intangible assets acquired based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. As required, preliminary fair values are determined upon acquisition, with the final determination of the fair values being completed within the one-year measurement period from the date of acquisition. The valuation of acquired assets and assumed liabilities requires significant judgment and estimates, especially with respect to intangible assets. The valuation of intangible assets requires that the Company use valuation techniques such as the income approach. The income approach includes the use of a discounted cash flow model, which includes discounted cash flow scenarios and requires significant estimates such as future expected revenue, expenses, capital expenditures and other costs, and discount rates. The Company estimates the fair value based upon assumptions management believes to be reasonable, but are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates. Estimates associated with the accounting for acquisitions may change as additional information becomes available regarding the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Acquisition-related expenses and any related restructuring costs are recognized separately from the business combination and are expensed as incurred.
Variable Interest Entities
The Company holds an interest in Stan Lee University (“SLU”), an entity that is considered a variable interest entity (“VIE”). The variable interest relates to 50% ownership in the entity that is comprised of the Stan Lee Assets and that requires additional financial support from the Company to continue operations. The Company's investment in SLU was $0.8 million, net $1.2 million of distributions as of December 31, 2022 and $2.0 million as of December 31, 2021, respectively. The Company is considered the primary beneficiary and is required to consolidate the VIE.
In evaluating whether the Company has the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact its economic performance, the Company considers the purpose for which the VIE was created, the importance of each of the activities in which it is engaged and the Company’s decision-making role, if any, in those activities that significantly determine the entity’s economic performance as compared to other economic interest holders. This evaluation requires consideration of all facts and circumstances relevant to decision-making that affects the entity’s future performance and the exercise of professional judgment in deciding which decision-making rights are most important.
In determining whether the Company has the right to receive benefits or the obligation to absorb losses that could potentially be significant to the VIE, the Company evaluates all of its economic interests in the entity, regardless of form (debt, equity, management and servicing fees, and other contractual arrangements). This evaluation considers all relevant factors of the entity’s design, including: the entity’s capital structure, contractual rights to earnings (losses), subordination of the Company’s interests relative to those of other investors, contingent payments, as well as other contractual arrangements that have the potential to be economically significant. The evaluation of each of these factors in reaching a conclusion about the potential significance of the Company’s economic interests is a matter that requires the exercise of professional judgment. The Company continuously assesses whether it is the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity as changes to existing relationships or future transactions may result in the Company consolidating its collaborators or partners.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods.
Foreign Currency
The Company considers the U.S. dollar to be its functional currency for its United States and certain Canadian based operations. The Canadian dollar is the functional currency of its Wow Mainframe Studio entity. Accordingly, the financial information is translated from the Canadian dollar to the U.S. dollar for inclusion in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Revenue and expenses are translated at average exchange rates prevailing during the period, and assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Resulting translation adjustments are included as a component of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), net in stockholders’ equity.
Foreign exchange transaction gains and losses are included in Other Income (Expense), Net on the consolidated statements of operations.
Foreign Currency Forward Contracts
The Company's wholly-owned subsidiary, Wow, is exposed to fluctuations in various foreign currencies against its functional currency, the Canadian dollar. Wow uses foreign currency derivatives, specifically foreign currency forward contracts ("FX forwards"), to manage its exposure to fluctuations in the CAD-USD exchange rates. FX forwards involve fixing the foreign currency exchange rate for delivery of a specified amount of foreign currency on a specified date. The FX forwards are typically settled in CAD for their fair value at or close to their settlement date. The Company does not currently designate any of the FX forwards under hedge accounting and therefore reflects changes in fair value as unrealized gains or losses immediately in earnings as part of the revenue generated from the transactions hedged. The Company does not hold or use these instruments for speculative or trading purposes.
Per FASB ASC 815-10-45, Derivatives and Hedging, the Company has elected an accounting policy to offset the fair value amounts recognized for eligible forward contract derivative instruments. Therefore, the Company presents the asset or liability position of the FX Forwards that are with the same counterparty net as either an asset or liability in its consolidated balance sheets.
As of December 31, 2022, the gross amount of FX Forwards in an asset and liability position that were subject to a master netting arrangement was $12.9 million and $13.0 million, respectively, resulting in a liability recorded within Other Current Liabilities on the Company's consolidated balance sheet of $0.1 million. The change in fair value of $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 was recorded as an unrealized loss within Production Services Revenue on the Company's consolidated statement of operations. The Company did not hold FX Forwards prior to the Wow Acquisition.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid debt instruments with initial maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $7.4 million and $2.1 million, respectively, that at times could exceed FDIC or CDIC limits..
Restricted Cash
The Company does not hold restricted cash as of December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2021 a restricted cash balance of $8.0 million was held in an escrow account for the future commitment of financing related to the Company's investment in YFE.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are presented on the consolidated balance sheets net of estimated uncollectible amounts. The carrying amounts of trade accounts receivable and unbilled accounts receivable represent the maximum credit risk exposure of these assets. The Company evaluates its accounts receivable balances on a quarterly basis to determine collectability based on an assessment of past events, current economic conditions, and forecasts of future events. The Company records an allowance for estimated uncollectible accounts in an amount approximating anticipated losses. Individual uncollectible accounts are written off against the allowance when collection of the individual accounts appears doubtful. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company recorded an allowance for bad debt of $65,421 and $22,080, respectively.
The Company limits its exposure to this credit risk through a credit approval process and credit monitoring procedures. In addition, Wow’s contracts with customers usually require upfront and milestone payments throughout the production process. The Company’s customer base is mainly comprised of major Canadian, American, and worldwide studios, distributors, broadcasters, toy companies and AVOD and SVOD platforms that have been customers for several years.
Tax Credits Receivable
The Canada Revenue Agency (“CRA”) and certain Provincial governments in Canada provide programs that are designed to assist film and television production in the form of refundable tax credits or other incentives.
Estimated amounts receivable in respect of refundable tax credits are recorded as an offset to the related production operating cost, or to investment in film and television costs when the conditions for eligibility of production assistance based on the government’s criteria are met, the qualifying expenditures are made and there is reasonable assurance of realization. Determination of when and if the conditions of eligibility have been met is based on management’s judgment, and the amount recognized is based on management’s estimates of qualifying expenditures. The ultimate collection of previously recorded estimates is subject to ordinary course audits from the CRA and Provincial agencies. Changes in administrative policies by the CRA or subsequent review of eligibility documentation may impact the collectability of these estimates. The Company continuously reviews the results of these audits to determine if any circumstances arise that in management’s judgment would result in a previously recognized amount to be considered no longer collectible.
The Company classifies the tax credits receivable as current based on their normal operating cycle. Government assistance, in the form of refundable tax credits, is relied upon as a key component of production financing. These amounts are claimed from the CRA through the submission of income tax returns and can take up to 18 to 24 months from the date of the first tax credit dollar being earned to being received. As this financing is fundamental to the Company’s ability to produce animated productions and generate revenue in the normal course of business, the normal operating cycle for such assets is considered to be a 12 to 24-month period, or the time it takes for the CRA to assess and refund the tax credits earned.
As of December 31, 2022, $26.3 million in current tax credit receivables related to Wow’s film and television productions was recorded, net of $0.2 million recorded as an allowance. The allowance is related to uncertainties in tax credits applied for in the amount of $1.6 million with a Provincial government the Company has not yet established a history.
Marketable Debt Securities
The Company purchases high quality, investment grade securities from diverse issuers. Management determines the appropriate classification of securities at the time of purchase and reevaluates such designation as of each balance sheet date. Currently, the Company classifies its investments in marketable securities as “available-for-sale” and records these investments at fair value. The securities are available to support current operations and, accordingly, the Company classifies the investments as current assets without regard to their contractual maturity.
Unrealized gains or losses on available-for-sale securities for which the Company expects to fully recover the amortized cost basis are recognized in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income, a component of stockholders’ equity. If the Company intends to sell a debt security, or it is more likely than not that it would be required to sell a debt security before the recovery of its amortized cost basis, the entire difference between the security's amortized cost basis and its fair value at the balance sheet date would be recognized as a loss in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company reports accrued interest receivable separately from the available-for-sale securities and has elected not to measure an allowance for credit losses for accrued interest receivables. Uncollectible accrued interest is written off when the Company determines that no additional interest payments will be received. Classified within Other Receivables on the consolidated balance sheets, approximately $0.3 million in interest income was receivable as of December 31, 2022.
Interest earned on investment securities is reported in interest income, net of applicable adjustments for accretion of discounts and amortization of premiums accounted for over the life of the security or, in the case of callable securities, through the first call date, using the level yield method, with no prepayment anticipated.
Equity-Method Investments
When the Company does not have a controlling financial interest in an entity but can exert significant influence over the entity’s operating and financial policies, the investment is accounted for either (i) under the equity method of accounting or (ii) at fair value by electing the fair value option available under U.S. GAAP. Significant influence generally exists when the firm owns 20% to 50% of the entity’s common stock or in-substance common stock.
In general, the Company accounts for investments acquired at fair value. See Note 5 for further information about the Company’s investment in YFE’s equity securities accounted for under the fair value option.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation on property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from two to seven years. Maintenance, repairs, and renewals, which neither materially add to the value of the assets nor appreciably prolong their lives, are charged to expense as incurred. Gains and losses from any dispositions of property and equipment are reflected in the consolidated statement of operations.
Right of Use Leased Assets
The Company determines at contract inception whether the arrangement is a lease based on its ability to control a physically distinct asset and determines the classification of the lease as either operating or finance under FASB ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”). For all leases, the Company combines all components of the lease including related nonlease components as a single component. Operating leases are reflected as Operating Lease Right of Use (“ROU”) Assets and Operating Lease Liabilities and finance leases are reflected as Finance Lease ROU assets and Finance Lease Liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As the Company’s operating leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The Company estimates the incremental borrowing rate to reflect the profile of collateralized borrowing over the expected term of the leases based on the information available on the lease commencement date or for leases existing upon the date of initial adoption of ASC 842, the date of adoption. The implicit rates within the Company’s existing finance leases are determinable and therefore used to determine the present value of finance lease payments.
The operating lease ROU assets also include any lease payments made prior to lease commencement date and excludes lease incentives. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when the Company is reasonably certain that it will exercise the option. Lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term within General and Administrative Expenses on the consolidated statements of operations. Lease incentives are recognized as a reduction to the lease expense on a straight-line basis over the underlying lease term. Refer to Notes 8 and 20 for details of the Company's leases.
Film and Television Costs
The Company capitalizes production costs for episodic series produced in accordance with FASB ASC 926-20, Entertainment-Films - Other Assets - Film Costs. Accordingly, production costs are capitalized at actual cost and amortized using the individual-film-forecast method, whereby these costs are amortized, and participations costs are accrued based on the ratio of the current period’s revenues to management’s estimate of ultimate revenue expected to be recognized from each production.
Productions in Development
Capitalized development costs are reclassified to productions in progress once the project is approved and physical production of the film or television program commences. Development costs include the costs of acquiring film rights to books, scripts or original screenplays and the third-party costs to adapt such projects, including visual development and design. Advances or contributions received from third parties to assist in development are deducted from these costs.
Productions in Progress
For the Company’s film and television programs in progress, capitalized costs include all direct production and financing costs incurred during production that are expected to provide future economic benefit to the Company. Borrowing costs and depreciation are capitalized to the cost of a film or television program until substantially all of the activities necessary to prepare the film or television program for its use intended by management are complete.
Completed Productions
Completed productions are carried at the cost of proprietary film and television programs which have been produced by the Company or to which the Company has acquired distribution rights, less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses.
Due to the inherent uncertainties involved in making such estimates of ultimate revenues and expenses, these estimates have differed in the past from actual results and are likely to differ to some extent in the future from actual results. In addition, in the normal course of business, some titles are more successful or less successful than anticipated. Management reviews the ultimate revenue and cost estimates on a title-by-title basis, when an event or change in circumstances indicates that the fair value of the production may be less than its unamortized cost. This may result in a change in the rate of amortization of film costs and participations and/or a write-down of all or a portion of the unamortized costs of the film or television production to its estimated fair value. An impairment charge is recorded in the amount by which the unamortized costs exceed the estimated fair value. These write-downs are included in amortization expense within Direct Operating Expenses on the consolidated statements of operations. See further discussion in Note 9 for impairment charges recorded during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021.
All capitalized costs that exceed the initial market firm commitment revenue are expensed in the period of delivery of the episodes. Additionally, for episodic series, from time to time, the Company develops additional content, improved animation and bonus songs/features for its existing content. After the initial release of the episodic series, the costs of significant improvement to existing products are capitalized while routine and periodic alterations to existing products are expensed as incurred.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over the estimated fair value of net assets acquired in business combinations accounted for by the acquisition method. In accordance with FASB ASC 350, Intangibles Goodwill and Other, goodwill and certain intangible assets are presumed to have indefinite useful lives and are thus not amortized, but subject to an impairment test annually or more frequently if indicators of impairment arise. The Company completes the annual goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment tests at the end of each fiscal year. To test for goodwill impairment, the Company may elect to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit, of which the Company has two, is less than its carrying value. If impairment is indicated in the qualitative assessment, or, if management elects to initially perform a quantitative assessment of goodwill, the impairment test uses a one-step approach. The fair value of a reporting unit is compared with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is not impaired. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment charge would be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit's fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.
Changes in future results, assumptions, and estimates after the measurement date may lead to an outcome where additional impairment charges would be required in future periods. Specifically, actual results may vary from the Company’s forecasts and such variations may be material and unfavorable, thereby triggering the need for future impairment tests where the conclusions may differ in reflection of prevailing market conditions. Further, continued adverse market conditions could result in the recognition of additional impairment if the Company determines that the fair values of its reporting units have fallen below their carrying values.
Intangible assets have been acquired, either individually or with a group of other assets, and were initially recognized and measured based on fair value. Annual amortization of these intangible assets is computed based on the straight-line method over the remaining economic life of the asset.
The Company has performed its annual impairment test on its goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets during the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. Refer to Note 10 for details.
Debt and Attached Equity-Linked Instruments
The Company measures issued debt on an amortized cost basis, net of debt premium/discount and debt issuance costs amortized using the effective interest rate method or the straight-line method when the latter does not lead to materially different results.
The Company analyzes freestanding equity-linked instruments including warrants attached to debt to determine whether the instrument meets the definition of the derivative and whether it is considered indexed to the Company’s own stock. If the instrument is not considered indexed to the Company’s stock, it is classified as an asset or liability recorded at fair value. If the instrument is considered indexed to the Company’s stock, the Company analyzes additional equity classification requirements per FASB ASC 815-40, Contract’s in Entity’s Own Equity. When the requirements are met, the instrument is recorded as part of the Company’s equity, initially measured based on its relative fair value with no
subsequent re-measurement. When the equity classification requirements are not met, the instrument is recorded as an asset or liability and is measured at fair value with subsequent changes in fair value recorded in earnings.
When required, the Company also considers the bifurcation guidance for embedded derivatives per ASC 815-15, Embedded Derivatives.
Treasury stock
The Company records the repurchase of shares of its common stock at cost on the trade date of the transaction. These shares are considered treasury stock, which is a reduction to stockholders’ equity. Treasury stock is included in authorized and issued shares but excluded from outstanding shares.
Revenue Recognition
The Company accounts for revenue according to standard FASB ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”).
Revenue is measured based on the consideration specified in a contract with a customer. Revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of the products or services in a contract. Judgment is required in determining the timing of whether the transfer of control occurs at a point in time or over time and is discussed below. The Company evaluates each contract to identify separate performance obligations as a contract with a customer may have one or more performance obligations. Consideration in a contract with multiple performance obligations is allocated to the separate performance obligations based on their stand-alone selling prices. If a stand-alone selling price is not determinable, the Company estimates the stand-alone selling price using an adjusted market assessment approach. The Company’s main sources of revenue are derived from animation production services provided to third parties, the sale of licenses for the distribution of films and television programs, advertising revenues, and merchandising and licensing sales.
The Company has identified the following material and distinct performance obligations:

Provide animation production services.

License rights to exploit Functional Intellectual Property (“functional IP” is defined as intellectual     property that has significant standalone functionality, such as the ability to be played or aired. Functional IP derives a substantial portion of its utility from its significant standalone functionality).

License rights to exploit Symbolic Intellectual Property (“symbolic IP” is intellectual property that is not functional as it does not have significant standalone use and substantially all of the utility of symbolic IP is derived from its association with the entity’s past or ongoing activities, including its ordinary business activities, such as the Company’s licensing and merchandising programs associated with its animated content).

Provide media and advertising services to clients.

Fixed and variable fee advertising and subscription-based revenue generated from the Genius Brands Kartoon Channel!, the Frederator owned and operated YouTube channels and revenues generated from the operation of its multi-channel network on YouTube.

Options to renew or extend a contract at fixed terms. (While this performance obligation is not significant for the Company’s current contracts, it could become significant in the future).

Options on future seasons of content at fixed terms. (While this performance obligation is not significant for the Company’s current contracts, it could become significant in the future).

Production Services

Animation Production Services
For revenue from animation production services, the customer controls the output throughout the production process. Each production is made to an individual customer’s specifications and if the contract is terminated by the customer, the Company is entitled to be reimbursed for any costs incurred to date, and for any prepaid commitments made, plus the agreed contractual mark-up. Revenue and the associated costs of such contracts are recognized over time on a percentage of completion basis - i.e., as the project is being produced, prior to it being delivered to the customer. The
percentage-of-completion is calculated based upon the proportion of costs incurred cumulatively to total expected costs. Changes in revenue recognized as a result of adjustments to total expected costs are recognized in profit or loss on a prospective basis. Invoices related to these projects are issued based on the achievement of milestones during the project or other contractual terms. The difference between contractual payments received and revenue recognized is recorded as deferred revenue when receipts exceed revenue. When revenue exceeds milestone billings, the Company recognizes this difference as unbilled accounts receivable within other receivables on the Company's consolidated balance sheet. Unbilled accounts receivables are transferred to accounts receivable when the Company has an unconditional right to consideration.
When the outcome of an arrangement cannot be estimated reliably, revenue is recognized only to the extent of the expenses incurred that are recoverable.
Content Distribution
Film and Television Licensing
The Company recognizes revenue related to licensed rights to exploit functional IP in two ways; for minimum guarantees, the Company recognizes fixed revenue upon delivery of content and the start of the license period and for functional IP contracts with a variable component, the Company estimates revenue such that it is probable there will not be a material reversal of revenue in future periods. The Company recognizes revenue related to licensed rights to exploit symbolic IP substantially similarly to functional IP. Although it has a different recognition pattern from functional IP, the valuation method is substantially the same, depending on the nature of the license.
Invoices related to these projects are issued based on the achievement of milestones during the project or other contractual terms. The difference between contractual payments received and revenue recognized is recorded as deferred revenue when receipts exceed revenue. When revenue exceeds milestone billings, the Company recognizes this difference as unbilled accounts receivable within other receivables on the Company's consolidated balance sheet. Unbilled accounts receivables are transferred to accounts receivable when the Company has an unconditional right to consideration.
Advertising revenues
The Company sells advertising and subscriptions on its wholly-owned AVOD service, Kartoon Channel!, and its SVOD distribution outlets, Kartoon Channel! Kidaverse, and Ameba TV. Advertising sales are generated in the form of either flat rate promotions or advertising impressions served. For flat rate promotions with a fixed term, revenue is recognized when all five revenue recognition criteria under ASC 606 are met. For impressions served, the Company delivers a certain minimum number of impressions on the channel to the advertiser for which the advertiser pays a contractual cost per mille impressions ("CPM"). Impressions served are reported on a monthly basis, and revenue is reported in the month the impressions are served. For subscription-based revenue, revenue is recognized when a customer downloads the mobile device application and their credit card is charged.
Upon the acquisition of Wow, the Company generates advertising revenue from Frederator’s owned and operated YouTube channels as well as revenues generated from the operation of its multi-channel network on YouTube. Revenue is recognized when services are provided in accordance with the Company’s agreement with YouTube, the price is fixed or determinable, and collection of the related receivable is probable. Receivables are usually collectable within 30 days.
Licensing & Royalties
Merchandising and licensing
The Company enters into merchandising and licensing agreements that allow licensees to produce merchandise utilizing certain of the Company’s intellectual property. For minimum guaranteed amounts that make up a contract, revenue is recognized over time, over the term of the license period commencing on the date at which the licensees can use and benefit from the licensed content. Variable consideration in excess of non-refundable guaranteed amounts, such as royalties and other contractual payments are recognized as revenue when the amounts are known and become due provided collectability is reasonably assured. Invoices are issued based on the contractual terms of an agreement and are usually payable within 30-45 days.
Product Sales
The Company recognizes revenue related to product sales when the Company completes its performance obligation, which is when the goods are transferred to the buyer.
Media Advisory & Advertising Services
Media and Advertising Services
The Company provides media and advertising services to clients. Revenue is recognized when the services are performed. When the Company purchases advertising for clients on linear and across digital and streaming platforms and receives a commission, the commissions are recognized as revenue in the month the advertising is displayed.
Gross Versus Net Revenue Presentation
The Company evaluates individual arrangements with third parties to determine whether the Company acts as principal or agent under the terms. To the extent that the Company acts as the principal in an arrangement, revenues are reported on a gross basis, resulting in revenues and expenses being classified in their respective financial statement line items. To the extent that the Company acts as the agent in an arrangement, revenues are reported on a net basis, resulting in revenues being presented net of any expenses incurred in providing agency services. Determining whether the Company acts as principal or agent is based on an evaluation of which party has substantial risks and rewards of ownership under the terms of an arrangement. The most significant factors that the Company considers include identification of the primary obligor, as well as which party has credit risk, general and inventory risk and the latitude or ability in establishing prices.
Direct Operating Costs
Direct operating costs include costs of the Company’s product sales, non-capitalizable film costs, film and television cost amortization expense, impairment expenses related to film and television costs, and participation expense related to agreements with various animation studios, post-production studios, writers, directors, musicians or other creative talent with which the Company is obligated to share net profits of the properties on which they have rendered services. Upon the acquisition of Wow, the Company also includes salaries and related service production employee costs as part of its direct operating costs.
Share-Based Compensation
The Company issues stock-based awards to employees and non-employees that are generally in the form of stock options or restricted stock units (“RSUs”). Share-based compensation cost is recorded for all options and awards based on the grant-date fair value of the award.
The fair value of stock options is estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes-Merton (“BSM”) option pricing model, which requires management to make assumptions with respect to the fair value on the grant date. The assumptions are as follows: (i) the expected term assumption of the award is based on the Company’s historical exercise and post-vesting behavior (ii) the expected volatility assumption is based on historical and implied volatilities of the Company’s common stock calculated based on a period of time generally commensurate with the expected term of the award; (iii) the risk-free interest rates are based on the implied yield available on U.S. treasury zero-coupon issues with an equivalent expected term; (iv) and the expected dividend yields of the Company’s stock are based on history and expectations of future dividends payable. In the case of RSUs the fair value is calculated based on the Company’s underlying common stock on the date of grant.
The Company recognizes compensation expense over the requisite service period ratably, using the graded attribution method, which is in-substance, recognizing multiple awards based on the vesting schedule. The Company has elected to account for forfeitures when they occur. The Company issues authorized shares available for issuance under the Company’s 2015 Incentive Plan and the Company’s 2020 Incentive Plan upon employees’ exercise of their stock options.
Debt Issuance Costs
Debt issuance costs relate to the issuance of Wow’s Production Facilities and are recorded as a reduction to the carrying amount of debt and amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the respective terms of the facilities. Debt issuance costs directly attributable to the acquisition or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. Debt issuance costs as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 were insignificant.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings (loss) per share of common stock (“EPS”) is calculated by dividing net income (loss) applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS is calculated by dividing net income (loss) applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding, plus the assumed exercise of all dilutive securities using the treasury stock or “as converted” method, as appropriate. During periods of net loss, all common stock equivalents are excluded from the diluted EPS calculation because they are antidilutive.
Income Taxes
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized based on differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using presently enacted tax rates. At each balance sheet date, the Company evaluates the available evidence about future taxable income and other possible sources of realization of deferred tax assets and records a valuation allowance that reduces the deferred tax assets to an amount that represents management’s best estimate of the amount of such deferred tax assets that more likely than not will be realized.
Concentration of Risk
The Company maintains its cash in bank deposit accounts which, at times, may exceed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s (“FDIC”) or the Canadian Deposit Insurance Corporation’s (“CDIC”) insured amounts. Balances on interest bearing deposits at banks in the United States are insured by the FDIC up to $250,000 per account and deposits in banks in Canada are insured by the CDIC up to $100,000 CAD. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had twelve bank deposit accounts with an uninsured balance of $3.4 million.
The Company has a managed account and a brokerage account with a financial institution. The managed account maintains our investments in marketable securities of $83.7 million as of December 31, 2022. The brokerage account had a cash balance of $2.2 million as of December 31, 2022. Assets in the managed account and brokerage account are protected by the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (“SIPC”) up to $500,000 (with a limit of $250,000 for cash). In addition, the financial institution provides additional “excess of SIPC” coverage which insures up to $1.0 billion. As of December 31, 2022, the Company has not had account balances held at this financial institution that exceed the insured balances.
The Company’s investment portfolio consists of investment-grade securities diversified among security types, industries and issuers. The Company’s policy limits the amount of credit exposure to any one security issue or issuer and the Company believes no significant concentration of credit risk exists with respect to these investments.
For fiscal year 2022, the Company had four customers, whose total revenue exceeded 10% of total consolidated revenue. These customers accounted for 71.9% of total revenue. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had two customers whose total accounts receivable exceeded 10% of total accounts receivable. These customers accounted for 26.1% of the total accounts receivable as of December 31, 2022.
For fiscal year 2021, the Company had one customer whose total revenue exceeded 10% of the total consolidated revenue. This customer accounted for 14.6% of total revenue. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had two customers whose total accounts receivable exceeded 10% of total accounts receivable. These customers accounted for 29.9% of the total accounts receivable as of December 31, 2021.
There is significant financial risk associated with a dependence upon a small number of customers. The Company periodically assesses the financial strength of these customers and establishes allowances for any anticipated bad debt.
Fair value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. ASC 820 establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (level 3 measurements). These tiers include:
Level 1 - Observable inputs such as quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets;
Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable such as quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets or quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions, such as valuations derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs or significant value drivers are unobservable.
The carrying amounts of cash, restricted cash, receivables, payables, accrued liabilities, bank indebtedness and the margin loan approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of the instruments. The Company used the settlement value for its put option liability on certain warrants and the fair values of the liability-classified derivative warrants are revalued at the end of each reporting period determined using the BSM model (Level 2) with standard valuation inputs. Refer to Note 18 for additional details. The investment in YFE is also revalued at the end of each reporting period based on the trading price of YFE (Level 1). Refer to Note 5 for additional details. Upon the acquisition of Wow, foreign currency forward contracts that are not traded in active markets were assumed. These are fair valued using observable forward exchange rates at the measurement dates and interest rates corresponding to the maturity of the contracts (Level 2).
The fair values of the available-for-sale securities are generally based on quoted market prices, where available. These fair values are obtained primarily from third-party pricing services, which generally use Level 1 or Level 2 inputs for the determination of fair value to facilitate fair value measurements and disclosures. Level 2 securities primarily include corporate securities, securities from states, municipalities and political subdivisions, mortgage-backed securities, United States Government securities, foreign government securities, and certain other asset-backed securities. For securities not actively traded, the pricing services may use quoted market prices of comparable instruments or a variety of valuation techniques, incorporating inputs that are currently observable in the markets for similar securities.
The following table summarizes the marketable securities measured at fair value by level within the fair value hierarchy as of December 31, 2022 (in thousands):
Level 1 Level 2 Total Fair Value
Marketable investments:
Corporate Bonds $ 34,465  $ 3,779  $ 38,244 
U.S. Treasury 19,556  –  19,556 
Mortgage-Backed –  5,374  5,374 
U.S. agency and government sponsored securities –  9,560  9,560 
U.S. states and municipalities –  10,906  10,906 
Asset-Backed –  66  66 
Total $ 54,021  $ 29,685  $ 83,706 

Fair values were determined for each individual security in the investment portfolio. The Company’s marketable securities are considered to be available-for-sale investments as defined under FASB ASC 320, Investments – Debt and Equity Securities. There were no impairment charges recorded for the marketable securities during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. Refer to Note 6 for additional details.
Financial and nonfinancial assets and liabilities measured on a non-recurring basis are those that are adjusted to fair value when a significant event occurs and include the Company’s contingent earn-out liability, goodwill, intangible assets and film and television costs.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (Topic 326). ASU 2016-13 replaces the “incurred loss” credit losses framework with a new accounting standard that requires management's measurement of the allowance for credit losses to be based on a broader range of reasonable and supportable information for lifetime credit loss estimates. The new model, referred to as the current expected credit loss (“CECL”) model, will apply to: (1) financial assets subject to credit losses and measured at amortized cost, and (2) certain off-balance sheet credit exposures. This includes, but is not limited to, loans, leases, held-to-
maturity securities, loan commitments, and financial guarantees. The CECL model does not apply to available-for-sale (“AFS”) debt securities. For AFS debt securities with unrealized losses, entities will measure credit losses in a manner similar to what they do today, except that the losses will be recognized as allowances rather than reductions in the amortized cost of the securities. The ASU also simplifies the accounting model for purchased credit-impaired debt securities and loans. ASU No. 2016-13 also expands the disclosure requirements regarding an entity’s assumptions, models, and methods for estimating the allowance for loan and lease losses. On October 16, 2019, the FASB approved a proposal to change the effective date of ASU No. 2016-13 for smaller reporting companies, such as the Company, delaying the effective date to fiscal years beginning after December 31, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal periods. Early adoption is permitted for interim and annual reporting periods. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU 2016-13 on its consolidated financial statements but does not expect that the adoption of this standard will have a material impact.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers" (“ASU 2021-08”). The standard requires an acquirer in a business combination to recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with ASC 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” as if it had originated the contracts. The standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted this ASU during the second quarter of 2022 and has incorporated this guidance in its evaluation of the accounting for the acquisition of Wow.